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[Tiếng Anh Y học] Trắc nghiệm về cơ chế sinh lý bệnh và bệnh sinh của Cơn bão giáp

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MCQs:

A 28-year-old female presents with a two-week history of palpitations, tremors, and weight loss. On examination, the patient is found to have a heart rate of 140 beats per minute, a temperature of 101.5°F, and tachycardia. The most likely diagnosis is:
A) Hypothyroidism
B) Hyperthyroidism
C) Normal thyroid function
D) Hyperparathyroidism
Answer: B) Hyperthyroidism
Rationale: The symptoms and findings are consistent with hyperthyroidism, which can lead to the development of thyroid storm if not treated.

The primary mechanism by which thyroid hormones exert their effects in the body is by:
A) Binding to intracellular receptors
B) Binding to extracellular receptors
C) Inhibition of hormone secretion
D) Activation of hormone secretion
Answer: A) Binding to intracellular receptors
Rationale: Thyroid hormones exert their effects by binding to intracellular receptors and altering gene expression. This leads to an increase in metabolic activity and energy expenditure.

The primary treatment for thyroid storm includes:
A) Antithyroid drugs
B) Thyroid hormone replacement therapy
C) Surgery
D) Beta-blockers
Answer: D) Beta-blockers
Rationale: Beta-blockers are used to manage the symptoms of tachycardia and hyperactivity in thyroid storm. Other treatments may include antithyroid drugs and intravenous administration of glucocorticoids.

An uncontrolled episode of thyroid storm can lead to:
A) Hypothyroidism
B) Cardiac arrest
C) Myocardial infarction
D) Hyperparathyroidism
Answer: B) Cardiac arrest
Rationale: If left untreated, thyroid storm can lead to severe complications, including cardiac arrest, heart failure, and even death. Prompt recognition and treatment are critical in preventing these outcomes.

The primary symptom of thyroid storm is:
A) Fatigue
B) Weight gain
C) Fever
D) Agitation
Answer: D) Agitation
Rationale: One of the hallmark symptoms of thyroid storm is increased nervousness and agitation. Other symptoms may include fever, tachycardia, and hyperactivity.

Fill-in-the-blank:

Thyroid storm is a life-threatening condition characterized by an acute exacerbation of ________.
Answer: hyperthyroidism
Rationale: Thyroid storm is a medical emergency that occurs as a result of an acute exacerbation of hyperthyroidism, characterized by an overproduction of thyroid hormones.

Increased nervousness and agitation are common symptoms of ________.
Answer: thyroid storm
Rationale: Increased nervousness and agitation are hallmarks of thyroid storm, which is a result of the overproduction of thyroid hormones in the body.

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